Islamic architecture

Architecture is the pot of civilization, which represents a feed of cultural identity and creative aesthetic and human level. 
 
Islamic architecture was able to move from the speculator in the countryside to the huts in the villages, and then to the buildings and monuments in cities, the carrier features an authentic, consistent with human requirements and with the traditions and the environment, and is characterized by the Islamic arts that there is a general unit collects so that it can characterize any piece produced in under Islamic civilization in any country of the Islamic world, and perhaps the secret of this superiority of Islamic civilization and the technical ability to dye functional products in all countries dye one. 
 
 
 
 
 
There are two main areas to identify the nature of Islamic architecture: 
 
 
• The first area architect historic and emotional, is based on three axes keyhole in the definition of Islamic civilization, the first is the formal axis, which reduces the Islamic architecture in the forms most popular arches, domes and internal patios and Alawawin and mashrabiyya and Cadroanat, and gives these shapes and functions Islamic specificity find bases of the thought of a unified Islamic radicals and appearances and Almarb In a joint religious and social climate. 
 
 
The second axis is the spiritual axis mystic who sees in the Islamic architectural history, a direct reflection of the theories Tsofih belonging to businessman Sufis bones of medieval Arab Kappen and Rumi without any historical proof that the ideas and principles and typology of Sufism has affected in the form of architecture, content and Zachrvha. 
 
 
Environmental axis is the third axis, which sees - and popular rural Islamic creations especially - linked to their environment and the reactions of creative data this environment from excessive heat and the weather dry and the scarcity of water and greenery, and although the climate theme prevalent in the majority of regions of the Islamic world, but it is not absolute. 
 
 
 
These three axes intersect to give a definition of the most popular at the present time for Islamic Architecture, which focuses on the distinctive shapes of historical models and the spiritual dimension of the mystic and the specific environmental response membership of the desert climate is warm and dry. 
 
 
• The second area is the academic neutral depends on the historical and geographical dimensions, history of Islamic architecture extends between the seventh century and the beginning of the nineteenth century, since the advent of Islam and even the era of European conquest of most Islamic lands and the dominance of modern Western civilization on the aspects of artistic and cultural production all after the demise of colonialism in the end of the era of national liberation .. 
 
 
The geographical dimension opines that Islamic architecture is the entire buildings and facilities that are full of the cities of the Islamic world and regions, including those that once formed part of it, then grabbed other civilizations Kalondls and Sicily, or those that included him recently, such as Turkey and Bosnia, for example, or those that were not a component politically in the Dar al-Islam until the modern era took place but in the cultural or commercial orbit before they become a part of it, such as Malaysia and the southern Philippines, and some Chinese regions and sub-Saharan Africa. 
 
 
Interest in cultural Balnteg especially architectural Islam during what was called (Islamic awakening) in the eighties of the twentieth century, which disagree concept. It was half and extends between the surface and the different degrees of depth, to suit the level of awareness of the parties, it is the superficiality of the treatment of the facades, with respect to the vector containing the Islamic thought for thought and philosophy Alasalamah.ma fundamental ways the moral side of interoperability with the aesthetic and utilitarian side of the building. 
 
 
It should be drawn to the architecture that Muslims were the product of environmental and social needs, mingled with the thought that drives attributes and evolves over time according to the variables, and IRC Client recognized Ali proven, nor stay in the world of Mahntat and keeps crouching in history. This is a contrast between the concepts of Islamic architecture as an ideology and philosophy and architecture as a product of Muslims and forms. Some Orientalists embarked on the study of Islamic Heritage closely by reading the blogs that mention elaborated descriptive parameters, including the dates and the conduct of kings and description travelers. Was crowned by identifying some sites, followed by a stage projection Mosoufat on paper through the interpretation and classification of information and reflected in plans, as happened with the French George Marceau (1876 1962) regarding the Levant and the Maghreb, Englishman Keppel Archibald Cameron Creswell (1879 1974) and the German Hirschfeld The Iraqi Mustafa Jawad (1904 1969). And still raised doubts about the concept of Islamic architecture, and raises the question of Islam Is thrust architecture of his own, or are, in fact, the development of models for regional Buildings, rooted in the legacy of those cultures, especially ones with large span in the ancient Near East. 
 
 
 
Several terms have been received to indicate the architecture of Islam, where the concept was not well defined, and different people and call it even in these terms: 
 
1 Alsarasinah architecture: they use them (because Paul Lane-Pooles) and found in his book (binding arts Aserascenih -Handbook of Sarascenic Art) or (Aserasceni art in Egypt) Act, 1886. descended this term from ancient Greek and was used by historian Ptolemy specific identity of the Arabs Petra, the Nabataeans who inhabit the area. Then used by the Romans to denote the desert people who inhabit the island Lafratip. Thus was determined that the Arabs and not others during the Byzantine eras and expansion in the Crusades and popularized in the seventeenth century, and the expansion of its meaning to include the pirates at sea Almtost.o called on Muslims in general. Some attributed it distorted from (Easterns) or (fierce) or (Aqrachin) .. Some Alkh.oivhb to vehicle and it means (Sarah slaves) or the children of Ishmael, son of Hagar, maid Sarah, in relying on an excerpt from (Paul's message to the Galatians). 
 
 
2 Architecture Muhammadiyah. Mohammadan Architecture has been popularized in use since the mid-nineteenth century, and I have received (Martin Brix Martin S. Briggs) in his book (Muhammadiyah architecture in Egypt and Palestine), which was written by the year 1882. 
 
3 Arab architecture (or Arabs architecture) Arab Architecture: Because of this overlap between Islam and Arab.oukd use it Orientalists, including (Gustav Le Bon, who wrote (the civilization of the Arabs) included all their productions, including the architect. The criticize it (because the police and Spears and Verson, as well as Rifuera) , what it means to determine the status of the Arabian Peninsula Arabism including housing and limbs, and the pronunciation from Morocco to Iraq, is not included for building the Persians, Indians, Chinese and others. 
 
4 Islamic architecture or Amuslimanah (Muslim- architecture -Islamic -Musulman). And control in this term linguistic aspect to some extent. Can be considered that the concept is closest to Alswab.omen early books of this term in French (m. Salahuddin M. Saladin) in his book, issued in 1907 under the title (binding Islamic Art Manuel d L art Musulman), has Aaddh in this label Rifuera Rivoira as well as Spears Spiers, with the participation of architects Thvdahm or skilled workers from Arab and foreign Christians in some of the architectural features attributed to Islamic civilization. 
 
5 Moorish architecture (Moorish arch), who launched the Spanish Moroccan Ali, and then happened to be moved to indicate specifically Muslims and expanded until called by the Muslims of the Philippines and the Pacific Dzramahat. Models have moved (Moorish) Islamic to Latin America, and the Pacific Islands during the sixteenth century.
 
 
Islamic architecture has begun to build mosques and schools and chapels ligaments and Gorges water fountains and Hospices and if we want to trace the evolution of Islamic architecture of the mosque and found the cornerstone of it. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mosques 
 
 
The mosque is the most important buildings in the eras of Islam major goal in masterly architectural design; When built a mosque trying to make it a masterpiece of architectural and decorative elements on a great deal of beauty feel human impressed and pleased because of the consistency of architectural parts such as the consistency of the minaret with the dome and the consistency of the entrance with a minaret and dome windows and decorations on the interfaces, and therefore Muslims interested in design, and the most important what it takes elements of its composition is a dish that can accommodate the largest number of worshipers and is followed by a place for doing wudoo .. and was surrounded by open corridors of the a la carte to protect people and the worshipers of the sun's heat and a private porch Almimm bisected Mecca, was deeper than the rest of the galleries, and in its wall there is the mihrab, or which tend to kiss the Kaaba and the platform on its side, and on the amount of seat near him to recite the Koran. 
 
 
Minarets also occupies a special importance to the design of some parts, such as the corners of the mosque, a place of worship. It is known that the decorative elements derived from technocracy Sasanian and Byzantine, as Muslims, including quote what fits their religion and their taste has used the geometric shapes of square and triangular and round, also emerged as structural elements in the ceilings and walls and took the Muslims of Arabic fonts tool for the decoration of mosques, and are considered "arabesque" of the most important decorative elements dazzling, a decoration begins and ends as it crosses the center of each of the beginning and the end and the decorative elements of the European artist could not create them so we found all European artists both glass and metal makers and architects transporting this decoration and use it in their art. 
 
 
Muslims and choose from the Koran and the Hadith certain texts in mosques and No.oha plaid prominent character or hollow, painted or colored Basbgh or gold leaf, and Othbtoha in domes and Majarab above and on the sides of the walls. 
 
 
Obviously has become a mosque leads services and multiple functions vary depending on the peoples and environments that the multiplicity of architectural styles in the building of mosques, although all of them have taken the elements of Islamic architecture and its essence was most mosques until the fourth century contains an open courtyard surrounded by arcades on three sides or from two sides to be greater iwans gallery is the kiss of its importance, as every mosque on the niche or more platform contained a minaret and often on Midhat. 
 
 
 
 
Minarets 
 
Lighthouse or silo represents a most important elements at all in the mosque architecture, Rising minaret usually subject to the external configuration of the mosque with a harmony in the disparity between the dome and the dimensions and interfaces mosque ratios, which generally suggests the viewer homogeneity required in the faces of architecture. 
 
 
 
  Minarets appeared in Islamic architecture for the first time in Damascus when authorized by prayer towers of the ancient temple, which he later on ruins of the Umayyad Mosque. This was originally the towers are built on Mnwalh first minarets in Islamic architecture, particularly in Egypt and the Levant and the Maghreb. Built on Mnwalh first minarets in Islamic architecture, particularly in Egypt and the Levant and the Maghreb. 
 
 
The first square minarets in the Islamic era sector until the first balcony, and then continue on as well as a square or octagonal shape, and it follows a circular or octagonal shape and finish a small dome. 
 
 
Domes 
 
I knew in the dome of the mosque architecture specifically in the reign of the Umayyad dynasty, as it was not relevant knowledge in the era of the Prophet (Allah bless him and his family) in the days of the caliphate, and in all eras that followed was a symbol of the dome and a key element in the building of the mosque. 
 
 
 
Taking Islamic art in building domes for the Sassanids and Copts and Byzantines, and turned on its use in shrines even launched a part on the whole, and the word of the Dome of the name for the tomb of the whole, has spread in the Muslim world are different types of domes, and perhaps the most beautiful Islamic domes are located in Egypt, Syria, and because the oldest to Fatimid era. 
 
Domes were in the first covenant until the end of atheist century small, confined their use to cover the places in front of the mihrab, then spread use of the shrines, and were used in the first command to this job angle to facilitate the transition from the box to the appraiser decades, and what that numerous such contracts and smaller organized in rows, Almqrnsh Rattles which spread use in all domes in the early fourteenth century originated. 
 
Contracts and ornate Alttminac: 
 
Islamic architecture known different types of contracts, and each country would prefer some of these contracts on others. It contracts used in Islamic architecture in general, as follows: 
 
 
First: a horseshoe-shaped, which is holding the feet of rise centered on the contract, and consists of a circular sector is greater than a semi-circle. 
 
Second: Almkhmus contract, which consists of two circles arc and a tapered shape. 
 
Third, the contract with the lobes, used especially in the Maghreb and consists of a series of small contracts. 
 
Fourthly: Contract decorated inwardly muqarnas, commonly used in Andalusia, particularly the Alhambra and the Maghreb. 
 
Fifth: the contract high spire, used extensively in Iran, we find examples of it in the mosque of al-Sham also used in the mosques of Egypt. 
 
 
Stalactites 
 
Cornice syntactical element of the sources and origins of construction. And cornice board is made up of a series of vaulted Hanaya which sags or settles on each other layers or rows Tunfah, and are usually graded alternately called those rows "moments," and then one starts simplest three Hanaaa. It could be the first of its use and justification for his appearance in the corners of the domes quarrel over the closets of square, which is called "spherical triangles Squinches," which is intended to form a mode graded to transfer torque to the side walls and not to the existing corner which was abolished and replaced by those Hanaya that are meant to initialization of the form octagon emerging above the square shape of the room to turn embraces base or "neck" dome compatible with the circular body. And spherical trigonometry are blocks in the form of triangles summit at the bottom and curved base and Almtunfah forward at the top. 
 
 
 
Evidence indicates that the cornice element belongs to the Islamic architecture. And attested to by the (d John. Hawk) in his book (Islamic architecture), where he says (not shown cornice element in any style of architecture models in the world known to reduce the day). But nevertheless did not mention him in a detailed study of Islamic writings from the first period, and perhaps a little terse at a late stage, particularly with regard to analytical argument for his being. 
 
We may find one of the oldest of these analyzes are reported from Orientalist (Charles Blanc) in the mid-nineteenth century, who said (it arose from the need to make the shadows means protruding), and this is contrary to the logic that makes them architectural elements address inside the building, which is not available on that quantum of brightness to justify this significance, and this is the view of the French Orientalist Gustav Le Bon in 1880 in his book (the civilization of the Arabs), when males Arabs they hate what he loved the Greeks of faceted consolidated Almless angles and shapes list was a desire to fill the corners of the walls of the list and reached the round domes including play it from Alrdah squared arrived imperceptible; growing up small niches protruding triangular spherical named Palmtdlaat to make some up some Kkhalaya bees, have been used Almtdlaat in Sicily since the tenth and atheist century and about the Arabs of Andalusia Tgeoffadtha spherical to prisms list of faces concave. 
 
 
This analysis is the closest to the truth architectural and artistic logic in spite of his coming in the early period of the history of writing about Muslim architecture. 
 
 
Way: 
 
To order signs in Islamic architecture, particularly in the mosque architecture, with hardly devoid dish collector of effervescent that suggest Bmenba and stream water which flows on the side of the tub, have varied nomenclature and usage depending on the genes and civilizations and the environment, and adult Muslims architects in shaping the effervescent different forms came to the form of buildings topped with domes decorated with architectural motifs or in the form of different basins geometric forms, and has always been in the water all that example and a symbol of life and continuity. 
 
 
 
 
Finally ..... 
 
If architecture is the record that draws from the history of the ancients, including the progress and prosperity, or degradation and underdevelopment, the Islamic architecture, religious and private ones have been recorded for us the history of the successive states and gave us an honest picture of the origin, so that the Islamic faith, which has penetrated the hearts of believers Smaanha and suitability to the nature of the human psyche and its eagerness to Delight in the Hereafter, is closely associated with the architecture of mosques fill it from a safe in God and the Last Day and established prayer and zakat was not afraid to come, but God Almighty.

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