Green building

Green Building Green building, (known as green construction or sustainable facility) are designed buildings depends on the construction techniques that take into account the environment in the materials used and the consumption of energy and sustainability. Some of which depends on the raw materials in the construction and is keen to use what is in the vicinity of the place environment such as construction compacted soil or sand bags, some of which depends on the modern techniques of energy conservation and generation and recycling using advanced solutions based on solar energy, reclaimed water, and energy sources renewable. 
To improve the environmental quality of buildings and reducing the negative impact on the ecosystem and helping to establish protocols to assess the environment and energy, it is necessary to resort to ecological principles known internationally words green buildings. The project goal is to reduce to a large degree (or eliminate) the negative impact of buildings on the environment and building occupants. 
 
Definitions 
Ken Young architect Ken Yeang: see that green or sustainable architecture must meet the needs of the present without losing sight of the right of future generations to meet their needs as well. 
Architect William Reed William Reed: that green buildings are only buildings are designed and implemented and managed in a manner which puts the environment in mind, and also believes that the interests of a green building appears in the building to minimize the impact on the environment by reducing the creation and operation costs, 
Architect Stanley Abercrombie Stanley Abercrombie: opines that there are influential relationship between the building and the ground. As many cities in the ancient civilizations planned taking into account the southern facades of the buildings. 
 
Green building goals 
One of the most important can draw is the principles of the traditional city to rationalize the electrical energy is attention shade in all the parts and components and fabric Urban, Vazl is one of the most important factors contributing to saving energy by up to more than 30%, in addition to the legacy of the aesthetic in the cities, The difference between spaces sunny and shaded occur contrast paints paintings of the beauty of the city as a result of the refraction surfaces or visibility. 
The presence encourages walking, and this convergence is cultivated intimacy and affection between groups and members of the community, its prevalence and abundance of shade his social impact Tayeb opposite of what ails the city today where he popularized the use of various means of transportation instead of walking. 
We have ignored the many contemporary buildings and climate factorization Fahimnt crust glass on buildings and headed home to the outside instead of inside and exposed openings to direct sunlight, and openings and surfaces of glass rays are the main source of entry into force of the heat into the building Glass, increases the thermal access to the interior by far exceeds the force that occurs during the dark surfaces, the crust glass, especially in commercial and office buildings and court closures, which rely on air conditioning and mechanical cooling these buildings to direct rays of exposure where piled effects inside, which reflects negatively on the national and the electricity sector economy in particular, office and commercial buildings their skins glass and housing Bfathadtha glass and direct sun can be carried out more than 70% of the heat there is no doubt that the reduction of leakage heat of direct sunlight is one of the most important ways to achieve thermal comfort in high-rise buildings and especially those containing sheets of glass large, and therefore the attempt buildings shading by breakers sun is one of the most important factors contributing to the climate of design quality, and to secure the proper shading of the building prefer to use botanical elements such as trees and shrubs and evergreen climbers in Western facades and Deciduous in South interfaces, taking into account the employment of shading the building tools (breakers sun) as a tool give a distinctive aesthetic architectural character of the building, also can reduce electricity consumption by using: 
 
Solar photovoltaics (pv cells) 
And that produces electricity directly from sunlight falling on them light, somehow clean uncontaminated or influential negatively on the environment, and unobtrusive and without the occupancy of any space inside the building, plus they need a little maintenance, since they do not contain moving parts, it can also installed and used without barriers, which are mainly made ​​of a material silicon (sand) and is the material available on a large scale, and lead used to the detriment of the environment, and because the aggregated cells in the units it is fast to install, and can be increased in number and stretch them quickly , as well as generate electricity PV modules to use in place so there was a great result in the delivery of electricity. 
These cells are collected under the insulating layer (usually glass) to configure the panel photovoltaic (pv panel) to get a larger amount of energy. This makes PV cells forms and colors and different specifications to suit different applications in buildings without affecting the architectural character, the mismatch limpid and transparent half, which allows entry into force of light and which uses ordinary windows and glass surfaces and celestial lighting glass instead of, as well as have different colors such as gray and brown and black and green as well as some hybrid and gradient colors, and some types of cells to be flexible are winding and who is to fit curved surfaces and circular, this and use photovoltaics direct light in addition to the light scattered and reflected from nearby surfaces to generate electricity, where they can work when the sky is cloudy, contrary to what some may think that these cells only work when the sun is shining and the sky is clear, but during the night when the sun sets, the PV cells stop working so it can be generated electricity stored during the day in batteries to be used in hours of darkness. 
Can be installed PV systems in buildings in different ways, where it can be installed on the ceiling or on the exterior walls of the building, in addition to the possibility of their use as an external finishing an umbrella or rain or Kkasirat to sunlight. 
 
Adaptation to climate Adapting With Climate 
Must be adapted to the building with the climate and the various elements, in the moment in which the ends of construction becomes part of the environment, like a tree or a stone, and it becomes an exhibition of the same effects of the sun or the rain or wind as anything else is in the environment, if managed the building that faces the pressures and problems climate and at the same time using all climatic resources and natural available in order to achieve human comfort inside the building can be called on this building as a balanced climate, the climate control and create a suitable atmosphere human life is as old as humanity itself a problem, the man was keen to include built to shelter two main components: protection of the climate, and try to find an appropriate internal atmosphere of comfort. 
So people were forced in the tropics and dry and warm humid to devise means to cool their homes using energy sources and physical phenomena Tabieitin, and show that this generally solutions, more in line with the functions of the human physiological body, modern means electric-powered as organs refrigeration and air conditioning. 
 
Environmental processors 
Among these environmental processors mention short as follows: 
Inner courtyard 
 
The cold air at night store to face extreme heat during the day in the hot dry climate. Almlagaf: is an aerated rises from the building and has a slot for an interview the direction of the prevailing wind gusts of air passing over the building to snap up and which is usually the coldest and pushed him into the building. Fountain: placed in the center of your house and yard are intended fountain courtyard give the aesthetic appearance of the air and mixing with water and wet and then moving to the interior spaces. Nectar: a marble slab crispy inspired by the movement of wind or water is placed inside an aperture or slot from the opposite wall of Ewan or seating position to allow water to drip over the surface to facilitate the evaporation process and increase air moisture there. 
Iwan 
 
It is a roofed hall only three walls, and completely open from the fourth, and overlooking the open courtyard, was preceded by a gallery. Perhaps contacted multiple halls and rooms by the construction and function in it. 
Sistrum 
 
They are used in the coverage of the main halls and help to provide ventilation and indirect lighting of the hall, which also topped Almlagaf working with tempered air temperature and the hot air at the top of the room to withdraw. 
Mashrabia 
 
Mnkhalah a wooden lattice with a circular section, separated by a specific and regular intervals frilly geometrically accurate and extremely complex and is working to adjust the air and light in addition to providing privacy slots. 
Bishop 
Main article: roof 
Vaulted ceilings in the form of a hemisphere or half-cylinder, but always be shaded at noon as the speed of the air flowing over the curved surfaces increase, which helps to reduce the temperature of these ceilings. 
Reduce the use of new resources Minimizing New Resources 
This principle urges designers to take into account minimizing the use of new resources in buildings that Asammunha, and invite them to design buildings and create a way that it is the same or some Anazarea- at the end of the life span of these Almbane- source and a resource for other buildings, Few resources around the world to create buildings for future generations, especially with the expected population increases calls for workers in the construction field interesting application of this principle methods and different and innovative ideas at the same time, taking into account the use of building materials and products that lead to save the destruction of the environment worldwide, where they can use wood, for example, provided they do not destroy it forests, are also taken into account other materials on the basis of non-toxic elements produced with the lack of or reduced the emitting elements or harmful gases, this and considered material recycling and waste and the remains of the buildings of the most important methods to reduce the use of resources and new materials because it includes non-active materials in terms of the lack of chemical entering their interactions, in addition to the interest in sustainable design to provide space enough to carry out the disposal of solid waste and recycling demolition waste programs, and one of the other methods to reduce the use of new resources is the re-use of spaces and buildings of the functions and other activities. 
Site respect Respect for site 
The primary goal of this principle to set foot in the building the floor and the method does not work to bring about fundamental changes in the site parameters, it is an ideal destination of view and typical that the building if it is to remove it or move it from its location, the site dates back forerunner condition before the building of the building, and is considered domes and tents of nomads, one of the most important expressions of this principle examples, these tents are woven from the hair of sheep and camels and is supported and installed some wooden pegs and ropes only, when the departure of the Bedouins to other places in search of pasture to graze their sheep we note the lack of any changes substantial site and may not stay, but inferred from the remnants of the ashes of the fire which they light it to cook or at night to keep warm. 
The principle of respect for the site call for designers to use methods and ideas of design that would cause the least possible changes construction site, especially in drilling operations or reclamation or grab some trees from their places, and the most important contemporary examples in this area is to create a new system and developed to accommodate the pilgrims in the valley of Mina , has led attempts design to exploit the foothills of the mountains to house the pilgrims while preserving the natural environment of the holy feelings and the topography of the site to invent a kind of structural installations removable and applicable, the multi-story structural tents applicable system is wholly in line with the nature of his position and with what neighbored of facilities to house the pilgrims in the valley of Mina, also preserves the environment in which the Muslims are performing a large part of the Hajj. 
Susan Maxman ((Susan Maxman architecture that you see it fit their surroundings and are compatible with what people living with all the driving forces of society. 
Ian has put Mcharj Ian Macharg)) that the problem with human nature is reflected in the nature of the need to give continuity recipe efficiently amount source of life. 
In the viewpoint of some of the green architecture is highly efficient system in line with the dynamic surroundings less collateral damage, it is an invitation to deal with the environment better integrates with their determinants, blocking aspects of shortages or suitable disadvantage or benefit from the phenomena of this environmental ocean and its resources, hence the Description of this architecture as the (green) like Kalnbat who achieves success in his place, where they benefit fully from, who is the ocean to get food requirements, vegetation greater the older grew taller he did not create complete since its inception until it reaches the stabilization phase, and this particular point of view green architecture combined with the name of another and is a synonym of sustainable design (Sustainable Design). 
 
Principles of Green Architecture 
Characterized by buildings and cities diseased three main qualities: First: the depletion of energy resources. 
Second: the pollution of the environment, including ones out of the gaseous emissions and fumes or liquid and solid waste. 
Third: the negative impact on the health of the users of the buildings as a result of the use of chemical finishes or various other pollutants. 
Based on these negatives the principles of green architecture carrier ideas and theses able to overcome the previous drawbacks, and can tailor these principles are as follows: 
 
Determine the attitudes and the efficiency of the design structure 
 
Energy efficiency 
 
Must be designed and pays tribute to the building to reduce the need for fossil fuels and greater reliance is the natural energies, ancient societies understood this principle and achieved in many cases. It has all the peoples affected and since the beginning of creation, environmental factors at the design of the buildings, we find that the human past has been influenced by the movement of the sun in the construction of his house, as is the case when Badi population of low sun in winter and fear easily high sun in the summer, as is the case when the population of the desert who directed their tents toward the south in order to benefit as much as possible from the sun low in the winter sun and easily high fear in the summer. 
And it can be defined as green architecture of the entire previous views as: building design in a manner that respects the environment, taking into account the reduced energy consumption and resources while minimizing the effects of the construction and use on the environment while maximizing harmony with nature process.

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